Linux is a popular open-source operating system used by many individuals and organizations. One of the advantages of using Linux is its flexibility and customizability, including its user management capabilities. In this article, we will explore how to work with user profiles, add and remove users, and move back and forth between user and admin accounts. We'll also discuss why it's important not to use the main admin account and how to navigate between admin and user directories.
User Profiles and Home Directories When you create a new user account in Linux, the system automatically generates a home directory for that user. This home directory is where the user's personal files and settings are stored, such as documents, music, and configuration files. Each user's home directory is unique and can only be accessed by that user and the system administrator.
Adding and Removing Users To add a new user in Linux, you can use the "adduser" command followed by the username. For example:
sudo adduser johndoe
This will create a new user account named "johndoe" with a default home directory. You can also specify additional options such as the user's full name, password, and group membership.
To remove a user, you can use the "deluser" command followed by the username. For example:
sudo deluser johndoe
This will delete the user account and its home directory. Be careful when using this command, as it permanently deletes the user's files and settings.
Working with Admin and User Accounts By default, the first user created in Linux is granted admin privileges. However, it's recommended to create a separate admin account to perform system-level tasks and to use regular user accounts for day-to-day activities. This helps prevent accidental changes or damage to system files.
To switch between user and admin accounts, you can use the "su" command followed by the username. For example:
This will switch to the user account "johndoe" and prompt for the user's password. You can then perform tasks as that user, such as creating files or installing applications.
To switch back to the admin account, you can use the "su" command without specifying a username. For example:
This will switch back to the admin account and prompt for the admin's password.
Navigating Between Directories When working with Linux, it's common to navigate between directories in the command line interface. To navigate to a user's home directory, you can use the "~" symbol followed by the username. For example:
This will change to the home directory of the user "johndoe". To navigate back to the admin account's home directory, you can use the "~" symbol without specifying a username. For example:
This will change to the home directory of the current user, which in this case is the admin account.
Changing the Password of a User Profile in Linux
In Linux, it is important to change the password of a user profile regularly to ensure the security of the system. Here are the steps to change the password of a user profile in Linux:
Open the terminal window and log in as the root user or with sudo privileges.
Type the following command to change the password for a user:
usernamewith the name of the user whose password you want to change.
Enter the new password for the user when prompted. Linux will require you to enter the password twice to confirm that you typed it correctly.
Once the password has been changed successfully, you will see a message confirming that the password has been updated.
It is important to choose a strong and secure password that is not easily guessed or hacked. Consider using a password manager to generate and store strong passwords for each of your accounts.
Remember to change the password for each user profile regularly to ensure that your Linux system remains secure.
Going to Super User with "
sudo su - "
Sometimes, you might need to perform administrative tasks that require elevated permissions. In Linux, you can use the
sudo command to temporarily become a superuser or root user.
sudo, simply prefix the command you want to execute with
sudo. For example, to install a package with
apt-get, you can run:
kotlinCopy codesudo apt-get install <package-name>
-s flag can also be used to specify the shell environment. For example,
sudo -i will log you in as the superuser with the root user's environment, while
sudo -s will give you a new shell with your own environment but with superuser permissions.
If you want to become the superuser permanently, you can use the
sudo su - command. This will open a new shell with root permissions and environment.
Once you're done with your administrative tasks, be sure to exit the root shell by typing
exit or using the
CTRL+D shortcut. It's generally not recommended to stay logged in as the superuser for long periods of time, as it can increase the risk of accidentally executing destructive commands.
By using the
sudo command and becoming a superuser temporarily, you can perform necessary administrative tasks without having to log out and log back in as a different user.
Working with user profiles and directories in Linux is essential for managing multiple users and ensuring security and privacy. By following the tips and examples in this article, you should feel comfortable creating and managing user accounts, switching between admin and user accounts, and navigating between directories. Remember to always use a separate admin account for system-level tasks and to keep regular user accounts for day-to-day activities.